Live News Feeds
Copy of a sanitized Study
Draft Example Agreement
Biomass: Generally includes plant materials, such
as crops, crop residues, algae, wood waste materials
from timbering and lumbering operations, construction
and demolition waste, municipal solid waste and sewage
sludge (or biosolids). The specific definition of
biomass can depend upon state laws or regulations.
Gasification: The conversion of biomass or biosolids
(sewage) into a gas that can be used to produce
electricity and products. Biomass gasification differs
in several aspects from traditional gasification. The
plants are generally smaller in scale, use air instead
of oxygen (or use plasma gasification) and require that
the biomass be dried before being gasified.
British thermal unit. Btu is a measure of the
heating value of a fuel. It is the amount of heat
required to raise one pound of water one degree
Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. The higher the
number of Btu's per pound of feedstock, the higher the
heating value. For example, the heating value of
bituminous coal is typically 10,000-12,500 Btu per
pound, while municipal solid waste is in the range of
4,000-5,500 Btu per pound. Gasifiers are typically
designed or rated by the heat input in Btu per hour.
Capture: Separating out the carbon dioxide (CO2) and
concentrating it so that it can be compressed,
transported and stored. CO2 capture technologies are
commercially proven. Gasification plants manufacturing
ammonia, hydrogen, fuels or chemical products routinely
capture CO2 as part of their process. See more about
CO2 capture on the Gasification and CO2 page.
Burning or incineration of a fuel using excess air or
oxygen. When carbon-based materials (like coal or
biomass) are combusted, the reaction produces carbon
dioxide and heat, in addition to criteria air
pollutants. Gasification is a different type of process,
producing a gas. It is not combustion and provides a
less costly means of capturing CO2.
Air Pollutants: Under the authority of the Clean Air
Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has
established ambient air quality standards for common air
pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen
dioxide, ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide.
EPA regulates these air pollutants on the basis of
information (criteria) on the health and/or
environmental impacts of these pollutants. Criteria
pollutants are the only air pollutants with national
ambient air quality standards that define the allowable
concentrations of these substances in the air.
The material fed into a gasifier and converted into a
synthesis gas (syngas). Any carbon-containing material,
(solid, liquid or gas), can be used as a feedstock for a
gasifier. Traditional feedstocks include coal and
petroleum coke (or other residues of petroleum
refining). In addition, biomass, biosolids, municipal
solid waste, industrial wastes, and natural gas are used
as feedstocks. The feedstock itself is not a "fuel" in
gasification, since it is not combusted. Rather, it is
converted into a gas (syngas), which has value as
hydrogen, or transportation fuels that can then be
Gasification is a thermo-chemical process that converts
carbon-containing materials, such as coal, petroleum
coke (petcoke), biomass, waste, or other materials, with
little or no oxygen present and at high temperatures,
into a synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas can then be
used, to produce electric power, and valuable products
such as chemicals, fertilizers, substitute natural gas,
hydrogen, steam, and transportation fuels. Gasification
is very different from combustion, in that the
carbon-containing materials (feedstocks) are not burned
or incinerated; they are converted into the syngas. Read
more at the Gasification Process page.
A vessel where the gasification reactions take
place. In the gasifier, the feedstock reacts with oxygen
(or air) and water (or steam) at high temperatures.
Temperatures in gasifiers range from 900-3,000 degrees
Fahrenheit, depending technologies. Under these
conditions, the gasifier breaks apart the chemical bonds
of the feedstock, forming syngas.
Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC): An IGCC power
plant combines the gasification process with an
efficient "combined cycle" power generator (consisting
of one or more gas turbines and a steam turbine). Clean
syngas is combusted in the gas turbines to generate
electricity. The excess heat from the gasification
reactions r is then converted into steam. This is
combined with steam produced from the gas turbines, and
sent to a steam turbine generator to produce additional
electricity. Read more at the Products and Applications
gasification: Large scale gasification operations
used by industry, such as the chemical, paper, and
fertilizer industries. Typical products from industrial
gasification are gases, chemicals, fertilizers, and
transportation fuels. Read more at the Products and
solid waste (MSW): Residential and commercial
materials that are used and then discarded. These
materials include paper, yard waste, food waste, and
containers (such as plastic bottles and cans), tires and
electronics. MSW may include recyclable materials,
depending on the amount of recycling provided by the
oxidation: Partial oxidation is a chemical reaction.
It occurs in a limited oxygen environment - in a
pressurized vessel with heat, feedstock (such as coal)
and limited oxygen creating a syngas consisting
primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Plasma: Often called the fourth state of matter
(the other three are solid, liquid, and gas). Plasma is
created when an electrical charge passes through a gas.
The resultant "flash" of lightning is an example of
plasma found in nature.
gasification: The use of plasma, generally in the
form of a plasma "torch" or "arc" to provide the heat
energy needed to initiate a gasification reaction.
Plasma torches and arcs can reach temperatures of 5,000
- 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The most typical use of
plasma gasification is to convert various materials,
such as municipal solid waste and hazardous waste, into
a clean syngas used to produce electricity and other
A glass-like byproduct of the gasification process. Slag
is carbon or inert material such as ash that was not
converted to synthesis gas in the gasifier. It is inert,
non-hazardous and can be used in roadbed construction,
roofing materials and other applications.
or synthesis gas: The gas produced as the result of
the gasification reactions of feedstock, oxygen (or air)
and water (or steam). Syngas consists primarily of
hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Depending on the type of
gasification technology, quantities of nitrogen,
methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water
vapor are also present in the syngas. These can be
removed and reused using conventional gas cleaning
to-Energy gasification: The process of using
gasification to convert various types of waste streams,
such as municipal solid waste, hazardous wastes or other
industrial and commercial wastes into a synthesis gas
that can be used to produce electricity and other
valuable products. This differs from burning or
incinerating the waste, which involves combustion, not
gasification. Combustion produces carbon dioxide and
heat, but not the syngas produced by gasification.
Information with thanks to the
"Gasification Technologies Council"